El Zahraa Megahed and Laure Pantalacci, University of Lyon
The Demoniacal Manifestations of Winds in Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days
Calendars of Lucky and unlucky days in pCairo JE no. 86637 and pSallier IV (pBM 10184) include clear indications to the role of winds as bearers of demons and demoniacal diseases.
The two troops @rytyw and @nTtyw appear as personified winds on I Axt 4,
II Axt 24, II Axt 25 and III Smw 24. In those four days, demonic personified winds manifest to affect the lives of people on earth; they cause disease and perturb navigation in the Nile stream. Parallel days in Coptic and Arabic almanacs include clear citations for similar effects. Diseases spread by winds at the present time are also similar to those in the calendars.
The role of demons as personified winds in the former days regards them as
emanations or reflections to the conflict between Re and Apophis in the Netherworld. Demons are associated in calendars with the northern winds. The northern winds are dominant during most of the year; they are also the strongest and the most dangerous. The strength of northern winds, which is compatible with the east, agrees with the supernatural power of the agents of Re who reside in the East ready to attack the enemies of Re in the west.
On another day (I Prt 19), winds (TAw) figure as embodied demons (nTrw aAw) to spread demonical inflictions (jAdt rnpt). Apart from calendars, the Prt season is connected in other texts with dangerous exhalations of the soil. During those days, exhalations are implied to come from carcasses of animals that drown by the Nile flood. In that context, the question of #Atyw as equivalent to the miasmas of Galen or accurately as exhalations or gaseous emanations from cadavers (XAt) affected by sepsis (xAyt) is answered. Apart from calendars, it is certain that winds, breaths, exhalations and even the spit that goes out from mouths of demons by spitting are all pathogenic.